Home. It’s something I take for granted and usually don’t spend much time thinking about in an abstract way. I love our home. I love making our home feel comfortable and welcoming. I love cooking, cleaning, gardening and organizing (okay, maybe not cleaning so much). But what does “home” mean to me? I hadn’t given it much thought until I recently spent a delightful morning with Harriet Fasenfest in her home. As we drank coffee, walked around her garden and waited for the impromptu coffee cake come out of the oven (maple, blueberry and quinoa – YUM), we discussed the concept of home and what it really means to make a home.
For those of you not familiar with Harriet, she is the author of the book The Householder’s Guide to the Universe and a self-described Farm Wife. Harriet has spent a lot of time thinking about home and what it means to be a home maker. She is working on her next book which examines the history and modern implications of the home economy. Listening to her talk about the history of land ownership, the relationship between the global market economy and the home economy, and the devaluing of the culture of home, I began to have a new appreciation for what a “home” really means.
Harriet has spent the last few years working closely with small farmers in the area. She has traded her householding skills for farm fresh fruits and vegetables. She has learned to put up a pantry that provides delicious, nourishing food for the year. She has analyzed, tweaked and codified her methods for making a home and is now ready to share the wealth of information she has put together and talk to others about what it takes to make a home economy work.
For the next six weeks, Harriet will be hosting a working group that will come together once a month to read, discuss, analyze and philosophize on the topic of the New Home Economy. The groups will be held at the shop and at Harriet’s home. If you’re interested, check out the class page and register for the AUTHOR’S SERIES | Returning Home: The Practice, Principles and Art of the New Home Economy. I look forward to meeting fellow householders and sharing experiences, methods and new ideas. The first class is this Sunday. I hope to see you there!
We are so honored and excited to announce a new series of classes by Harriet Fasenfest. The author of Householder’s Guide to the Universe and the DVD Preserving With Friends is offering these classes in conjunction with the authorship of her new book Remembering, Re-Imagining and Returning Home. For more information on this series and to register, check out our class page. Also, read her new blog post here.
Welcome home or to the start of your return home. Hopefully you will join me for the full trek because I believe our homes, and the home economies that support them, will offer us comfort in the years ahead. I believe we are facing hard times and that finding a softer, kinder, more resilient way of confronting them will be necessary if we are to hold onto our hears. The negative results of our economic policies are picking up speed and we are seeing the breakdown all around us. Which is why creating homes and lives that are somewhat buffeted from the storm will be important to our emotional, spiritual and economic resiliency. At least that’s how I see it; otherwise, I would not have bothered to write this book. Others seem more willing to believe that a “local” economy will keep the reach and demands of the global economy at bay. Some imagine what is needed are a few new rules, taxes and incentives and that using the market place to put a price on carbon or to invest in alternative energy will create new jobs and a healthier environment. Some say it is Wall Street, moneyed interests in politics and crony capitalism that is the problem while others posit it is capitalism itself that has muddied the waters of a civil society and suggest a wholesale systems change. Though I applaud and agree with many of these efforts, my own tact is to focus on how creating a home economy can offer solutions that are not only strategic and life affirming but within reach of our own hands and hearts.
I love fall. It’s my favorite season. Aside from the crisp fresh air, the colorful tree displays and, of course, football, it’s the time of year that sends me into nesting mode. I guess that doesn’t sound too exciting, but trust me, it’s the best. For me, it means waking up on a brisk Saturday morning, starting a fire in the wood stove, and getting out the big stainless steel stock pot. What happens next is nothing less than magical. With some fairly inexpensive cuts of meat, leftover veggies, salt, wine and water, I’m able to make bone broth – the delicious, nutritious base to so many great fall recipes.
A lot has been said about bone broth lately. I’ve read about bone broth in magazines, books, on blogs and in newspapers. Here in Portland, we even have a Broth Bar that serves a wide variety of bone broths with your choice of add-ins. Genius.
I love that traditional foods are getting so much attention these days. If my mom were still with us, she would probably get a wrinkle on her forehead, squinch her eyebrows together and ask (in her really thick German accent) “What’s the big deal with bone broth, it sounds like just soup to me.” Yes mom, it is just soup. It’s the kind of soup you used to make, not the kind of soup that most of us eat out of a can or box. It’s the kind of soup that values frugality, that uses leftovers and meaty bones, that takes all day over a slow fire, that ends up being so delicious it is sometimes attributed with healing powers. But that’s kind of silly, because all good food – real food – has the power to heal. Enough reminiscing. On to the broth.
What makes bone broth so amazing is the minerals and collagen that come from the bones and connective tissues in meat which pass along to us in the broth. And while a perfectly wonderful broth can be made with just the bones, a little meat adds flavor and texture to the broth. I use a mix of knuckle and femur bones with a couple of meaty, boney (and inexpensive) shanks. Throw the bones in a 400 degree or so oven to let them brown, then brown the meat in the stock pot with a smidge of olive oil to keep them from sticking. Browning adds color and flavor to the broth.
Here’s the best part of a great broth. You don’t have to buy a mix of fresh veggies from the store or farmer’s market. You can use the ends, stems, and funny looking veggie parts that you don’t use during the week. In this batch I used carrot peels, a sad-looking carrot, a left over celery heart and the cut-off ends of the stalks, broccoli stems, kale stems, the top and bottom ends of a couple of beets, parsley stems, and onion ends and peels. I cut one additional onion in half and browned it with the bones for good measure. In all, the veggies were about the same volume as the bones and meat.
To round out the flavor, I add a few whole peppercorns and a couple of whole cloves. Salt is optional. If you’re planning on using the broth in recipes or reducing it, don’t add salt; but occasionally, I like to add just a pinch of sea salt to bring out the flavors. Acid helps break down the collagen and draw out the minerals, so if I have a little wine left over from the previous evening I’ll add a generous splash to the pot. Leftover wine is fine, but don’t use plonk. If you don’t have any decent wine (i.e. wine you would drink), add a couple of tablespoons of vinegar. Finally, I add some herbs – a bay leaf, maybe some thyme and a few extra stems of parsley.
When everything has found its way into your pot, fill the pot with water, cover and set on the stove. I set the heat to medium until just before it boils, then turn the heat to low and let it sit all day. You don’t want the broth to boil, just a light simmer will do. After 8 to 12 hours of slow cooking, I skim all the veggies and other bits from the top and set the broth pot out to cool. Usually I’ll start the stock in the morning, let it cook all day and then just before going to bed, I’ll skim it and set it out on the back porch to cool overnight. In the morning a lovely layer of yellow fat will cover your broth. Skim this off if you want, but don’t throw the fat away. The fat can be used for cooking – I like to sauté veggies with it.
Once the fat is skimmed from the top, I reheat the gelatinous remains just enough to liquefy. Remove the bones, meat and remaining veggies and pour the broth through a strainer into containers. Voilà, a week’s worth of healthy goodness! Aside from soups, I use the broth to braise veggies and meat, create thick, silky sauces, make gravies and reheat leftovers. If, like me, you’re trying to break a decades long coffee addiction, a warm mug of broth in the morning is (almost) as comforting, and much healthier, than that cup of joe.
That’s it, except for some final words of encouragement. Like all homesteading projects, making bone broth takes time and planning. While it’s much quicker to pick up that hermetically sealed box of broth from the store, the health benefits of homemade bone broth far outweigh the convenience of store bought – not to mention the amazing smells that fill the house as the broth slowly simmers. It doesn’t sound like much, but how we feed our families is a fundamental statement of our values. Every part of this process that we can take out of the hands of corporations brings us closer to better health, better sustainability and a greater sense of “home”. We all work, we all have busy lives, but sometimes it’s worth the extra time spent. Nuff said.
For the past year, I have interviewed a variety of the vendors that sell products at the Portland Homestead Supply. I have been inspired and fascinated by the diverse ways that these vendors are reclaiming ancient processes and skills, which are in danger of being subsumed by newer technologies. Homesteading, I have discovered, is apprenticing yourself to the skills that have kept the candle of humanity burning for centuries, from farming techniques to blacksmithing to pottery to crafting candles.
Not only does homesteading keep ancient practices alive, it also allows us to live more autonomously within our regional communities. We are more resilient if people within our communities contain the knowledge and skills to produce nourishing food. Already, Oregon has a rich local agricultural economy, but we can support ourselves more fully by spreading knowledge about seed saving to farmers, home gardeners, and anyone else interested.
In Cindy Conner’s book Seed Libraries: And Other Means of Keeping the Seeds in the Hands of the People, she proclaims that the most important reason to save seeds is because “whoever owns the seeds controls the foods supply.” In an era where Monsanto owns almost a quarter of the global seed market and intellectual property laws for seeds threaten farmers who save their own seeds, it is important that small scale farmers and gardeners preserve seed varieties that grow well in their climates by practicing seed saving. To parrot Conner, if we own the seeds, we control the food supply.
Seed saving varies dramatically depending on the plant. This article is meant to be an introduction to seed saving and will just scrape the surface of what is possible. The first thing to consider is whether the plant you are working with is an annual or a biennial. The beginner seed saver should start learning by saving the seeds of annual plants, which are much less complicated because you do not have to store the plant over winter in order to harvest the seeds.
|Type of Plant||Description||Examples|
|Annual||Life-cycle completed in one growing season.||Corn, beans, squash, tomatoes, broccoli|
|Biennial||Life-cycle completed in two growing seasons (the first year the plant produces vegetables and the second it flowers and seeds).||Carrots, beets, chard, rutabaga, cabbage|
Seed saving is an intentional practice. You must think about saving your seeds before you have even planted them because you want to prevent cross-pollination. Cross-pollination will occur if you plant different varieties of crops too close together. Thus, if you are serious about seed saving, you must plant your garden with it in mind. Seed Savers Exchange has created a useful chart that lists crops and the isolation distance that a home gardener should leave between plants in order to prevent cross-contamination.
The easiest crops to start learning how to seed save with are self-pollinators, which means the plant’s flowers contain both male and female parts and can pollinate themselves, thus reducing the chances of cross-contamination by external pollinators. Some common self-pollinators are sunflowers, lettuce, peas, beans, eggplants, peppers, and tomatoes.
Within the easy crops listed above, there are two categories categories of crops: wet seeded and dry seeded. The seeds in wet seeded crops are embedded in the flesh of fruits (think tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, squashes etc), whereas the seeds in dry seeded crops are enclosed in dry husks or pods (think peas, corn, beans, cabbage, lettuce, etc.) There are different harvesting and processing methods for wet seeds and dry seeds. We shall take on the simple steps for processing pea seeds (a dry seed) and tomato seeds (a wet seed) below.
The first step to saving peas is resisting the urge to harvest every single delectable pea on the plant, thus leaving pods to dry on the plant until they are brown. Harvest them four weeks after one would normally harvest them for eating, and then remove the seed from the dried pod. Place into a paper bag, label, and put in a cool, dry place until you want to grow peas again!
To save a tomato seed, you must harvest the tomato when it is ripe, bisect it, and squeeze out the jelly-like substance inside the tomato that contains the seeds. Place the seeds and jelly in a small jar, cover, and put in a warm location for three days, stirring once a day. You are essentially fermenting the seeds; after a few days fungus will appear on the top of the tomato seed mixture. This fungus performs an essential function, eating the gelatinous coat that surrounds the seed. After three days, fill the container with warm water. The viable seeds are heavier and will sink to the bottom, which means you can easily pour out the water, tomato pulp, and immature seeds that are in the top of the mixture. Take out those clean seeds, let them dry completely, and label and store them until the next planting!
There are many helpful resources online for the beginner and advanced seed saver. I have listed a few below.
Vegetable Planting and Seed Saving – Crop-specific planting and seed saving instructions from Seed Savers Exchange
Seed Saving Zine – The Seed Ambassadors Project, a group of organic farmers and gardeners based near Crawfordsville, Oregon, produced a beautiful zine that is a user-friendly introduction to seed saving.
Organic Seed Alliance: A Seed Saving Guide for Gardeners and Farmers – need to enter your email address to download the guide, but it is well worth it!
Saving Seeds from Biennial Plants – informative blog post about biennial plant seed saving
Portland Seed-Saving Resources
For those who live in the SE neighborhood, the SE Tool Library is an amazing resource. Not only do they have all sorts of tools to rent for free, they also have a seed library. I have picked up sunflower seeds, watermelon seeds, and basil seeds, and given back snap pea seeds and kale seeds. The SE Tool Library has odd hours because they are entirely volunteer run, so make sure you are stopping by on either a Tuesday or Thursday evening or a Saturday day.
If you live in NE, you are not out of luck! There is a NE Tool Library based out of Redeemer Lutheran Church that hosts a seed library as well. They are open on Tuesday and Wednesday evenings and Saturday daytime.
If you want to participate in a more hands-on experience, various organizations in Portland offer seed-saving classes. One of them, Handmade Gardens, has classes throughout the year focused on different gardening skills. The September 3rd class, Growing Seeds for your Garden and Community, will get your seed saving fire blazing.
The Portland Nursery is also an amazing resource for everything garden related. They get extra bonus points for providing classes to the public for free! There is a Wet Seed Extraction (Tomatoes and Cucumbers) class on August 22nd and a Finishing the Seed Harvest class on September 19th.
In summary, we will be working on our gardens all summer long, nourishing our vegetables to eventually nourish our bodies. But it doesn’t have to end there! As your vegetables and fruits ripen, consider saving the seeds ~ a practice which preserves diversity of agricultural crops, resists the global dominance of monolithic seed corporations, and saves you dollars because you don’t have to buy seeds all over again the next year.
If you missed planting seeds in March or April and your garden is still barren, it’s not too late. We have plant starts for sale at the Portland Homestead Supply, supplied to us by Winona Farms. Winona Farms is a one-man operation, run by Zach Hinkelman, located in the SW hills of Portland. Read the interview below to become acquainted with Zach and some helpful tips to keep your garden healthy as the summer approaches.
Why did you start Winona Farms?
Growing plants has always been my joy. I like tending to the cycle of life, and I enjoy making my own soil out of compost that I have maintained. I do not use chemicals or outside inputs in my soil, and I grow everything to organic standards. I grow plant starters and sell them because I want people to have success gardening. If they start off on the right foot, people are going to have a pretty good experience gardening.
When did you start growing plants? Sounds like it was a long time ago.
I grew up on a pig farm in Idaho. Back then, my grandfather was still farming around fifteen hundred acres of grain. My great aunt and I would pour over the Gurney’s seed catalog every spring. I created these enormous seed orders, and she would limit them down to about a third of what I had originally chosen. My passion for plants went dormant for a while after I left Idaho. I graduated college and went to work for an insurance company programming. I never had the space to grow plants until my wife and I bought this place back in 2009. When we moved in, I said, “Oh my god, look at all this space! I’m going to get some tomato seeds.” I bought heirloom seeds from Pennsylvania and ended up with about twenty mature plants. I knew I didn’t have a use for twenty tomato plants, so I advertised them on Craiglist for a hundred dollars. The next year, I started selling plant starts at farmers’ markets and then Barbur’s World Foods. It just keeps on getting bigger and bigger!
How has your family’s farm evolved? Is your family still farming?
My parents retired, and my uncle took over the farm. I actually go back and help him bring in the harvest every August; I’ve only missed one of them in all of my forty years. People have family reunions, and that’s mine! It’s always a joyful time, brings me back to the innocent times when I was six and seven begging my grandpa to let me ride in the combine with him.
It’s an interesting dynamic because I grow everything here organic on a small scale and my uncle grows with conventional GMO seeds on a large scale. I have to keep an open mind because this is how my family makes their living. I’m not a GMO supporter myself; I believe that there are plenty of good seeds out there that can produce the amount of food we need. GMOs have sprung up because they are easier. I have to be careful that I don’t say, “These are stupid. These are terrible.” That’s not the way it needs to be. Instead of blaming, I approach it as a conversation about how we can use less pesticides and fungicides that we both can learn from.
Where do you source most of your seeds now?
Most of the seeds come from Johnny’s in Maine. I also get some from Baker Creek and Seeds of Change. I am always looking for organic and small companies. Johnny’s isn’t that small, but I’ve always had awesome success with their seeds.
Do you have a favorite tomato or pepper that you grow?
I can give you a top five of the peppers. I love, love peppers. I have this Ancho which is also called a Poblano Magnifico. If you get it to ripen up red, it is so sweet and smoky. They are like vegetarian beef jerkey. I am also a big fan of the Super Hots (the Scorpions), which is what I make my salsa out of. The fish pepper is a fun one because it is variated. The leaves are green and white, and the peppers come out like striped zebras. It’s a nice looking ornamental plant.
My favorite tomato of all time is a White Trifele. It’s a really nice sauce tomato. Their appearance and their varied uses are a nice combination.
Are any of the tomatoes or peppers better suited to this climate?
Some of the Principe Borghese tomatoes that I potted up about three weeks ago are not really doing anything. The Principe Borghese is an Italian heirloom that is awesome for sauce. The story goes that the Italians would dig up the whole plant and hang it up and sun dry their tomatoes. I love the plant and the fruit, but I think they need a warmer climate.
Do you have any pro-tips for seeding plants and having success?
Don’t be afraid of failure because that is how you learn. Don’t be afraid to try stuff because it just might work! Seeds are very resilient; they can overcome some pretty rough stuff. Peppers will take more time and basil can be finicky, but overall the successes will overwhelm the failures.
The hardest thing to do is to continually nurture your plants. You can start out very excited, thinking, “I’m going to seed these tomatoes!” and then you forgot about them a few days later. They get dry and die off. As long as you can focus on your gardening a few minutes a day, that’s all it takes.
Also, if you buy starts, plant them in the late afternoon or evening so the plants can get acclimated before they get beat down upon by the sun.
Are there any resources that you would suggest for those interested in expanding their gardening skills?
I know some garden centers that have a lot of classes. Those are good tools simply because you can ask questions and talk through issues with experienced gardeners. New Scalpel, Portland Nursery, and the Homestead Supply are all good resources!
If you really want to be ambitious, look into a community garden plot. I belong to the one just down the street at United Methodist Church. They offer a program where you can donate all your produce to Neighborhood House. It doesn’t even cost anything for the plot. You just have to be out there, make sure you weed it and water it. You learn a lot just walking through and watching how other people grow their vegetables.
How do you see your work fitting into the larger homestead movement?
The homesteading thing has always been a weird thing for me because I grew up on a farm, and the movement is trying to recreate that lifestyle in a city. I can appreciate wanting that.
I think my business fits into the homesteading movement because it is giving people a head start on their gardens. Some reports say you can save quite a bit growing your own food. I appreciate the fact that if you’re growing your own food, you know where it’s coming from and you know what you’re putting in it. If you want to put chemicals on it, you can. The fact that you’re growing food in your backyard means it doesn’t have to be trucked up from California or South America. It’s much gentler on the environment, and harvesting produce you have grown yourself can be very satisfying.
What is the next step for your business?
I’m at a spot right now where I can’t get much bigger. You can see all these trees; it’s hard to get a lot of sun in here. I can’t expand any more in my backyard, besides building one more greenhouse. If I want to grow, I need a place out of town with a lot more sun. It’s a strange crux in my life because I lost my job of 18 years about a month ago. It’s actually been a blessing because I had been frustrated in that position and wanted to focus more on my gardening. I don’t know yet if the plants can pay all the bills! But for me, it is therapeutic. I could garden for hours. It would be rough for me to give up.
Posted in Interview | April 23rd, 2015
Barb Burwell went around the table, asking all of the students who had arrived at the Cultured and Fermented Foods Class at the Portland Homestead Supply why they had signed up. There was a wide range of answers stretching from mere curiosity about the culinary tradition of fermenting to wanting to gain skills to put to use in a professional kitchen. Barb, who is a holistic nutritionist, discussed the advantages of fermentation from the vantage point of nutrition and introduced the students to myriad recipes they could try at home. I interviewed Barb about how she became a fermentation expert, tips she has for beginner fermenters, and why fermentation is important. Check it out below!
When did you start fermenting things, and who did you learn from?
I learned by trial and error. About seven years ago, I decided I was going to make sauerkraut for my husband for Christmas. I googled how to do it online, made it in a little jar, and stuck it in his stocking. I didn’t follow the directions quite well, and the sauerkraut seeped out of the jar and into the stocking…That was my first foray into fermenting! A few years later, I was taking nutrition classes, and one of the requirements for becoming certified was to complete a community project. Some classmates and I taught fermentation classes for this project. I realized how much I loved teaching during that time as it gave me the excuse to create a laboratory of fermentation and try all different kinds of experiments.
What do you teach in your fermentation class?
I usually teach an introduction to the processes of fermentation and how to make simple projects like pickles and kimchi. I’ve also taught a class that focuses on fermentation, digestive health and building immunity. The class I am teaching today is focused on fermented foods from different cultures. I want to expand upon this idea by teaching an Asian pickle class, which would highlight different chutneys from India to Japan to China to Vietnam. That’s keeping me busy so far.
Can you explain the process of fermentation?
In fermentation, your goal is to get the lactobacillus bacteria to eat the sugars and carbohydrates and convert them into lactic acid. According to the Cultures for Health website, “Lactic acid is a natural preservative that inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria. Beyond preservation advantages, lacto-fermentation also increases or preserves the vitamin and enzyme levels, as well as digestibility, of the fermented food.”
You can ferment any kind of vegetable or fruit. Fruit tends to ferment quicker because it has more sugars. You can ferment dairy, alcohol, meat, beans and grains. You can do little quick ferments by adding whey to your oatmeal or guacamole. There’s an interesting movement in composting that I want to look into where you take a barley grain and add that to food scraps and ferment it as a composting means. There’s this one woman in Brooklyn who goes around and collects peoples’ food garbage and turns it into fermented compost.
Do you have any pro-tips for people who are just starting out?
Don’t be afraid to jump over the fear factor that some people associate with fermentation. You will know when something has gone rouge. There will be really icky looking mold, like black or pink mold. There will be no question. Digestion begins with your eyes. If the projects you are working on don’t look appealing to you, go with your gut.
Start your fermentation journey by making small batches and later working your way into bigger batches. You can experiment by creating flavor profiles. If you experiment in small batches, you won’t waste a lot of food if those batches go array. Every batch will be a little bit different. I think it depends on the weather, and I really believe it depends on your mood too. I think that when you are happy, your food reflects that.
Another pro-tip is that when things are fermenting, make sure they are submerged in a brine. Keeping oxygen off the food prevents mold and yeasts.
Are there any resources about making fermenting things, online or printed, that you would suggest?
I would suggest Sandor Katz’s book The Art of Fermentation. Two other helpful books are Nourishing Traditions by Sally Fallon and Fermented Foods for Health by Deirdre Rawlings. If you want to look at websites, check out Weston a Price Foundation, Cultures for Health, or The Kitchn.
I also want to express how grateful I am to The Portland Homestead Supply for letting me have these classes in their space. I love being able to interact with different members of the community and share the knowledge and passion that I have acquired about fermentation.
What is your favorite thing to ferment? What’s your go-to?
I will always love kimchi. My other favorite is fermenting white cabbage with apple, shallots, and tarragon.
What are common challenges people face when they are just starting to learn how to ferment things?
One challenge might be not adding enough salt, which will slow down the fermentation process. Another common mistake is embarking upon to many projects at once! You have to keep it simple because you are trying to keep alive lots of miniscule, live cultures. Once, I got overwhelmed and had to give away a lot of my projects. It was like having pets in the house. I was always having to feed them. When I wanted to go on vacation, I was thinking, “Oh my god, who’s going to look after the kombucha?”
So, just experiment with small, manageable batches and have fun with it! Throw caution to the wind – put jalepeño in your project! Write your process down. Keep a date book, make notes, and label everything. Keeping track of what you have done is necessary so you can repeat the process if it comes out well.
As a holistic nutritionist, I believe in taking control of what you eat and how you eat it. You can make anything that you can buy in the store. I don’t like the direction that big agriculture is going, and thus I am place the production of the food I consume into my own hands. This year, my goal is to grow as many vegetables as possible. One year, my family spent twenty dollars a month on groceries because we were growing so many vegetables. I want to do that again this year!
How often do you offer classes?
I try to do at least two classes a month. If people are interested in having private classes at their home, I am available for that too.
What is your next step in your fermenting endeavors?
At some point, I want to create a holistic center where acupuncture, massage, nutrition classes, yoga, and private counseling are all available. I want to be the fermentation person at this center. I am also interested in writing and publishing about fermentation.
Since their birth in 1986 in the United States, CSAs have expanded so much that the question is no longer “Where can I get one?” but instead an overwhelming “Which one do I choose?” According to surveying done by PACSAC (Portland Area CSA Coalition), there are at least 60 farms that bring food into the Portland metro area. Such an abundance of options can leave one flabbergasted and immobilized. I spoke with Caylor Roling, PACSAC Project Coordinator, to get her perspective on current CSA offerings in the Portland metro region. The first thing Caylor said was, ‘When choosing a CSA, you need to ask yourself, “What are my priorities? Am I concerned with share size, convenient pick-up locations, farm experience, having fresh veggies year round?”’ Caylor helped me realize that the increasing demand for CSAs has enabled farmers to occupy niche territory, differentiating themselves by offering models like individual shares, winter CSAs, and CSA models for distributing meat or flowers or plant starts. If rolling out of bed and being able to pick up your CSA a few blocks down from your house is your priority, this City of Portland map of pick-up sites will be your golden ticket. The veritable explosion of CSAs offered in the Portland metro area ensures that if you want it, some farmer out there has got it. Below is a list of helpful categories featuring local CSAs ~ read on to spring into summer.
CSAs that take SNAP benefits The problem with writing a piece about choosing a CSA is that many Portland residents don’t have the money to make that choice. CSAs are fairly expensive, and historically, share members have had to pay the full cost of the CSA before the beginning of the season so the farmers (who aren’t being subsidized by the govt. or other large corporations) have the start-up money necessary to buy their seeds and fertilizers. This up-front monetary investment is the fulcrum of the CSA business model: it allows farmers to directly market, plan, and finance operations before the start of the growing season while ensuring a consistent demand for the food produced. However, paying $600+ all in one sum can be a large financial burden and is a barrier to the benefits of a CSA for low-income people. In an effort to make CSAs more accessible, a few farms have begun to address this problem by accepting SNAP/EBT payments and enabling SNAP members to pay monthly or weekly, instead of with a lump sum. Zenger Farm, an educational working urban farm in East Portland, has created a website that lists all of the farms in Oregon that accept SNAP benefits. I have highlighted a few below.
Zenger Farm is a pioneering force in making CSAs more affordable to lower-income residents. For SNAP members, they offer a $27 a week CSA share and a subsidized SNAP share at $20 a week.
When: June – November, 23 weeks
What is included: Vegetables, herbs, & a package of beans or grains from Bob’s Red Mill!
Price: Regular shares: $650 made in one, two, or three payments
SNAP shares: $27 weekly payments or $124.20 monthly payments
Scholarship SNAP shares: $20 weekly payments or $92 monthly payments
Pick-Up: Zenger’s Farm or Lent’s International Farmers Market
When: June – October, 19 weeks, with the option of a Late Season Share
What is included: Seasonal vegetables farmed using biodynamic methods.
Price: $555 with different payment plans, including monthly payments.
Pick-Up: SE, NE, and SW Portland.
In exchange for 12 hours of work during the season, working shareholders at 47th Ave Farm will receive a $30 price reduction. Three work parties and potluck celebrations occur during the summer for shareholders.
When: May 19th – October 27th
What is included: Bountiful veggies!
Price: Half share ($550) and full share ($990)
Pick-Up: SE Portland (Woodstock) and Lake Oswego
Supporting Great Non-Profits There are quite a few CSAs available in Portland that come from non-profit farms. Supporting these farms through subscribing to a share serves a double purpose: getting you fresh veggies and furthering the mission of these non-profits. Check out a few below!
FoodWorks – I have to give a special shout-out to FoodWorks. I interned there a few summers ago, and the work they do is groundbreaking and important. FoodWorks is a youth employment program based on a small farm on Sauvie Island: they provide paying jobs on the farm to youth from the St. Johns neighborhood, teaching them invaluable job skills and giving them a chance to grow into leadership positions like CSA intern or Farmers Market Intern. When you buy a share in their CSA, part of your payment goes towards subsidizing a CSA share for a low-income family. Please think about supporting this amazing organization!
When: mid-June to the end of October, 21 weeks
What is included: 7-12 different vegetables and the Food Works newsletter which details farm happenings, what’s in season, favorite recipes, youth writings and Food Works program updates.
Price: Regular Share: $600, $450 is the base rate and $150 (tax deductible) will be used to offer the same CSA share to a family who might not be able to afford the full price.
SNAP Share: $15 weekly payments, total of $315 for the season.
Pick-Up: Portland State Farmers Market, St. Johns Farmers Market, Village Market, and the Janus Youth Programs Office
Schoolyard Farms is a Milwaukie-based non-profit whose mission is to educate youth and health and nutrition through hands-on experience in the garden. Their work is made possible by the financial support of CSA members.
When: June – October, weekly
What is included: five small bunches of different seasonal vegetables, weekly
Price: $275 for an individual share
Pick-Up: SE and NE Portland, Milwaukie
Individual Shares Having too many vegetables is a ridiculously abundant problem, but the average share size of CSAs is meant for families or those who are sharing food. In the past, a CSA has not been practical for someone living alone. The market has evolved to offer smaller, individual sized shares so that if you don’t want to share, you don’t have to.
When: They offer CSAs for each of the four seasons.
What is included: An assortment of vegetables.
Price: Prices vary by season, but Summer 2015 is $121.52 – $124 for an individual-sized share.
Pick-Up: Various Locations around Portland.
When: June – October, 22 weeks
What is included: Small share of vegetables that you get to choose! Each week, an email is sent out with a list of the available crops, and you get to choose six to eight items that you want.
Pick-Up: SE and NE Portland, Gresham
CSAs that Extend Beyond Summer and Fall We are extremely lucky that we live in a climate where vegetables can grow all year round! I have been receiving winter vegetables from Full Plate Farm out of Ridgefield, WA since November. They are sweet and nourishing and large after growing slowly during the winter months ~ I even received a bold purple beet that was as large and round as my face. Check out the farms below that have diversified their businesses by growing vegetables year round.
When: All Year Round – 52 weeks!
What is included: Seasonal Veggies all year round.
Price: $1560 for the full year, $30 per week
Pick-Up: Various Locations in the Portland metro area.
When: November – March, 24 weeks
What is included: Gorgeous winter vegetables.
Pick-Up: Various locations around Portland.
Diversification of CSAs (Alternative, Non-Veggie CSA Models) The CSA model has extended to several different markets as part of what local non-profit Ecotrust calls The Future Economy. Akin to the vegetable CSA model, you can receive a weekly supply of flowers, meat, seedlings, fish, and many other goods directly from the farmer (or fisherman) that grows or harvests them.
When: May – September, weekly
What is included: Flowers sourced from their farm and partner farms made into beautiful bouquets and delivered right to your home.
Price: $400, $20 a week for 20 weeks
Pick-Up: No pick-up ~ It’s home delivery!
Winslow Food Forest offers both a Harvest share, which includes a half dozen eggs, veggies, greens, herbs, and fruits, but more uniquely offers a Seedling Subscription, in which you select a variety of seedlings and they deliver the plants right to your door timed for outdoor planting.
When: April – June
What is included: 12 plants a month with the full share and 6 plants a month for the half share.
Price: Full Share ($125), Half Share ($75)
Pick-Up: Delivered to you!
What is included: Conveniently portioned cuts of grass fed, pasture-raised meat ~ you choose what’s in your box.
Price: Half-Size (60 lbs of meat a year): $588, Full-Size (120 lbs): $1,152
Pick-Up: No pick-up ~ delivered to your home once a month.
When: Share distributed during August and September
What is included: 21 pounds of wild sockeye salmon harvested from their Alaska fishery
Price: Approximately $10.85/ lb
Pick-Up: Inner Southeast Portland
When: June – November, 22 weeks
What is included: This is where it gets good. Mama Tee’s has a traditional veggie CSA, but also collaborates with several other farms to offer egg shares, bread shares, and meat shares. Who needs to go to the grocery store anymore?
Price: Prices vary depending on share choice.
Pick-Up: Missionary Chocolates in NE Portland
I hope that this article has served as a matchmaker, helping you to find a CSA that compliments your needs. To learn about even more choices, you can visit Portland Area CSA Coalition’s website, where they have provided us with a comprehensive list of CSAs in the area. Happy CSAing! Note: Portland Hmo
One contemporary writer has said, “We eat so much corn that, biologically speaking, most Americans are corn on two legs.” What if, instead of eating the byproducts of corn, we began consuming corn again in purer and more delicious forms? What if we gave corn back some dignity? Three Sisters Nixtamal, an organic corn masa and tortilla making business based out of Sellwood, has just this vision. Read the interview below with the owners, Wendy Downing and Adriana Azcárate-Ferbel, to learn about how they incorporate the tradition of corn in the Americas into their business and how you can incorporate the power of corn into your own life.
How did you meet each other and form the idea of Three Sisters Nixtamal?
Wendy: We met in prenatal yoga ten years ago in Sellwood. I have a chef background, and Adriana has a naturopath background. Adriana went to Mexico six or seven years after we had become friends and inherited her aunt’s tortilla cutter and bought a small stone grinder when she was there. Upon her return, she asked if I wanted to go into business with her. We starting selling our products in July of 2012 at the People’s Farmer Market and not long after at the Portland Homestead Supply.
Is that tortilla cutter still in operation?
Adriana: No, but I still have it. It’s a simple cutting machine— we picked up the tortillas off the belt and cooked them on a flat-top grill. Now, we have two machines that do all this in one.
Where did you learn to make corn masa and tortillas?
Wendy: We learned this process by researching on line and in books and then going to businesses in Portland, the Bay Area, Los Angeles and in Mexico that are still making their tortillas and fresh masa the traditional way.
Adriana: Nixtamaliztion and tortilla making has been done for thousands of years in Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras. The cooking and soaking whole dried corn kernels in water, salt, and lime (an alkaline, calcium hydroxide, not citrus lime) is a nutrient-enriching process discovered over three thousand years ago by the Indigenous people inhabiting what is now southeast Mexico and Guatemala. Everyone used to cook corn at their house and grind it by hand or take it to a local mill, but with modern times and the industrialization of the food system, people are mostly buying masa or tortillas at grocery stores or tortillerias and it is becoming more prevalent to use the dried tortilla flour instead of fresh masa.
Adriana: You see, they’re cooking blue corn, white corn, and yellow corn in these vats. She’s mixing the corn so that it will cook evenly. We can’t digest the nutrition in the corn without this cooking process; it unlocks the nutrients.
To cook it properly we have to taste it, check the temperature, and check how it feels to really say if it’s ready or not. When the kernels are cooked they soak overnight. The next morning we drain and rinse the corn and put it through a wet grinder. Our “Molino” has one fixed stone and another stationary stone so you can adjust the stones for the coarseness of the grind. We do custom orders for restaurants or individuals based on their desired grind for the corn. After we grind it, we mix it in the mixer. Masa needs to be mixed for the starches to join together. We then add water and a little bit of salt, and then it is ready to be made into tortillas or packed into blocks for people and restaurants to make their own.
Where do you source all of the corn?
It varies depending on what is available. Our blue corn typically comes from New Mexico and Mexico. The white and the yellow corn come from Illinois or Texas. We used to get it from Southern Oregon and Northern California, but the quality varied and that particular distributor preferred working with larger companies. It can be challenging for small companies to find a constant source of organic corn since the corn is harvested in the fall and then stored for the rest of the year. Sources have to change as the availability varies.
Most people now use masa harina or maseca at home, which is an industrially-made dried tortilla corn flour. The flavor and texture is not the same. We cook the corn kernels, grind them, and do not mix them with any flour. Most tortilla companies use this dried tortilla flour because it is easier, more consistent and takes less labor and expertise. Some companies mix the dried flour with fresh masa for a more standard and cheaper product. We use only 100% freshly nixtamalized organic corn masa with no added preservatives— just four ingredients: whole dried corn, water, lime (calcium hydroxide), and salt. Our way costs more. Corn production is subsidized by the United States and the company that makes the tortilla flour is subsidized by Mexico so there are two subsidies, and it’s really, really cheap. People might choose the tortillas from maseca because it’s less expensive, but once people taste the difference between our tortillas and the others, that’s when they are like, “Wow, this tastes better!”
Do you supply specific restaurants in the Portland region?
Yes! La Taq, La Panza Café and Stella Taco use mostly our masa and tortillas. We are also on the menu at two of the ChaChaCha! restaurants, Blossoming Lotus, Pono Farms at the Portland Farmers Market, Irving Street Kitchen, Bijou, Groundbreaker, American Local and Paragon. Our tamale masa is on the menu at Por Que No and Sarah’s Tamales at People’s Co-op Farmers Market.
There is a new food cart here in Sellwood, D.F. Fresh, and they are making tlacoyos, which almost no one makes in the United States. Tlacoyos are usually made with blue corn masa, and they are stuffed with beans, Mexcian ricotta, and favas or nopales. D.F. Fresh is making market type quesadillas out of our masa. It’s not easy to find 100% nixtamal.
A lot of people buy the tortilla flour masa and have a hard time getting the right consistency for making tortillas. It is easier to achieve the right consistency and a softer tortilla with fresh masa. If you have a tortilla press, you put the ball of masa between two plastic bags in it, press it as thick or as thin as you want, and then put the tortilla on a preheated griddle on medium to medium high heat. Put your tortilla on the griddle for thirty seconds. When the edges began to turn up just a bit and the color becomes more opaque, it is ready to flip the first time. After that, you wait a minute and then flip it again, and usually it puffs. If the tortilla hasn’t puffed, you should keep it on the grill for a bit longer. When you are preparing tortillas for tacos, you want it to puff because the steam inside the air bubble is going to keep your tortilla moist and softer. If you can cook a pancake, you can make a tortilla. It just takes one extra turn.
Can you use a rolling pin instead of a tortilla press?
Yes, it will just be harder and less even. When I lived in Spain, I didn’t have my press, so I used to press my tortillas between books. You can also press it by hand, but it will be thicker, more like a gordita or sope.
Masa is used for more than just tortillas. Its flexibity is the best thing about it! You don’t have to do just tortillas, you can make sopes, gorditas, tlacoyo, use it with other ingredients for tamales or pupusas. You can do so many things.
How often do you teach classes at the Portland Homestead Supply?
Once a month. We teach participants how to make tortillas, sopes, and gorditas. It’s really fun because we bring beans and salsas, so you get to eat everything you make! In most cooking classes, you sit down and observe. Here, no, everyone is making their own things because I want them to be able to go home and do it.
Is your masa available at most markets that sell your tortillas?
The fresh masa is more perishable than our tortillas and people are not familiar with it or sometimes don’t want to take the time to make their own tortillas. About half of the stores stock our masa as well as our tortillas. Portland Homestead was the first store to sell our products so you can find it here or if you can special order masa if you would like a larger quantity or a coarser grind for making tamales.
How long does the masa last?
Ten to twelve days. Longer if you don’t mind it fermenting a little bit. It’s ok if it’s a little fermented. We make fermented masa and corn beverages in Mexico like tequino.
What is your next step as a business?
I would love to be more accessible to some Latino stores in the community. We are reaching out to make connections to church groups so they can provide healthier food to their communities. I wish that we could be slightly subsidized so we could supply healthier food to a wider customer base. Some people shy away from the word organic, but it is better for the planet and the people. Our people have been eating tortillas for thousands of years, and now they are ingesting all of these chemical preservatives in their tortillas and eating non-organic. I would love to be able to provide something healthier for them.
Our goal is to provide great food and bring the spirit of the corn to everyone. Some people in the U.S. have a preconceived notion that they don’t really like corn tortillas. When they try ours, they say “Oh, wow, I didn’t even know that they tasted that good.” Our tortillas have a better texture and taste better because we don’t use chemicals, and we are treating the corn the way it has been treated for thousands of years. In Mexico, we have songs that say without corn, we are not people. We are not a nation without corn. So part of our business is bringing respect to the corn again. We would like to educate more people about why we are doing this and why they should choose this product.
Corn is a grain of the Americas. Learning to utilize it the way it should be used is bringing back who we are. We are teaching people how to use the fresh organic corn masa so they can use it to make their own food at home and teach their children. Our kids love making their own tortillas. I have customers who tell me that making tortillas has become an activity that brings their family together.
We want to teach people that making tortillas is something you can do! It’s not that hard. That’s why we began offering the masa. Not only is it more economical, once people try it out, they discover that it’s not that hard to prepare tortillas at home. Our traditional tortilla making process is bringing back knowledge that has been lost through the industrialization of our food system.
Posted in Urban Farmwife | March 6th, 2015
Having mom move in with me took a bit of getting used to. I mean, two strong minded women in one household? Still, if you read my book you know Sonja (my mom) was my teacher in all things related to food, and I owe her a ton of gratitude for that. Frankly, I still do which is more a comeuppance than a surprise.
In some odd stroke of fate and synchronicity the farm mom showed up at just the right time and with just the right attitude and skills. Thanks to her the farm home is operating as it should with three square meals a day cooked from scratch with nothing wasted. Which is what I mean by my comeuppance. If it wasn’t for her, the stuff hanging out in the freezer, cellar and pantry shelf from bounty 2014 would be lingering past its prime. Though I’m a tad ashamed of my sloth it seems I get to eat humble “pie” in the form of cake — miles and miles of cherry, blueberry and strawberry cake.
The cakes started showing up innocently enough. Baking has always been a way for Sonja to show her love which, for her grandson, meant cherry cake. Though canned cherries were not in my pantry when the cake-a-thons started, I kept my mouth shut deferring to the instinct that was bringing those cakes to bare. I mean love is love and if she needed to buy canned cherries then, well, I’m not about to look a gift cake in the mouth. But when she starting reaching for the my store of frozen blueberries I knew a great notion was not only being born but would soon be on the rise (sorry).
For the next few weeks we enjoyed our fair share of blueberry cakes only to be followed by strawberry cakes from my store of frozen Hoods. Though I have lost count I would imagine a half dozen strawberry cakes have met their maker which is good news given that fresh strawberry season is just around the corner. It appears that with little (or no) planning on my part strawberry stores 2014 will give way in time for strawberry season 2015 which is just the way it should happen in a perfect world (though for the record I have never lived in perfect world).
Yep, with Sonja around stuff has been moving. The tomato sauce is flying off the shelves (meat balls in sauce is a house favorite) as are the last of the stored potatoes (baked, boiled, mashed and repeat). We have enjoyed sides and sides of sauteed greens (made before and after the inevitable brassica flowering ensues) and piles of caramelized onions made in response to their early warp-speed sprouting and turned into “French” onion soup. My hunch It was likely some old farm wife or mom with a bunch of sprouting onions on their hands that came up with the brilliant idea to cook them to a fraction of their size and render their divinely sweet, dark and unctuous essence. Combined with a bit of beef broth and wine and top with crusty old bread and bit of melted cheese and you get something brilliant from slim pickings. Now that’s what I call enlightened peasant cooking.
This matter of peasant cooking is not all that removed from the world my mom came from. More likely it was cooking that still had a good deal of utility and frugality built into it — a time when three square meals a day was more a blessing then a given. That memory gets embedded in a person which is why mom is more walk then talk and why I said I was getting a comeuppance. Though I try to hold my own it is yet an optional endeavor. Eating out, particularly in Portland, Oregon, is always a tasty option. And so my hat goes to the farm mom who is showing me, once again, how it’s done and just in the nick of time.
Posted in Uncategorized | March 3rd, 2015
On these February mornings when the foggy dawn threatens to cloud one’s clarity, I often turn to the warm flame of a candle as a beacon of the coming spring. Humans have been lighting their way through winter for thousands upon thousands of years. The wax has changed based on the resources available regionally, from indigenous insects (China), the fruit of the cinnamon tree (India), animal fat (Europe), and the berries of bayberry bushes (early colonial America). In the late 18th century, the extraction of everything whale from the global ocean yielded a candle wax called spermaceti, a wax obtained by crystallizing sperm whale oil.
All of the waxes above had their pros and cons. Spermaceti burned brighter and beeswax burned sweeter (imagine the smell of animal fat slowly melting and you’ll see why this was a well-received innovation). This article will introduce you to the origin of the waxes that the Portland Homestead Supply sells and the pros and cons of the waxes they supply for candle-making.
The Homestead Supply sells five varieties of wax: three soy-based waxes, beeswax, and Candelilla wax. They do not sell paraffin wax, which is what holds the exotic smells of the majority of candles on the market, like Bath and Body Works Cherry Blossom Sangria or Brazilian Blue Waters candles. Paraffin wax is a material extracted as a byproduct of the crude oil refining process. Isla Wilson, candle making extraordinaire and employee of the Homestead Supply, said, “Paraffin contains a lot of dodgy chemicals, mainly formaldehyde and benzene. When you burn paraffin, it emits those chemicals into the air. I chose to work with soy and beeswax because I want to create natural candles that are not toxic, and are safe to burn around the entire family and pets.”
The waxes that the Homestead Supply sells for candle making are all sourced from renewable resources, making them both safe to burn and sustainable in the long-term to produce. Let’s start saucing about soy.
The Homestead Supply carries three varieties of soy wax, all sourced from a company called EcoSoya. The varieties are EcoSoya PB (Pillar Blend), Ecosoya CB Xcel (X-CEL Container Blend) and Ecosoya CB-Advanced (Advanced Container Blend). While there are other good soy waxes on the market, EcoSoya wax is unique because it is made from domestically grown, non-GMO soybeans, which undergo intensive manufacturing processes to remove any presence of pesticides, herbicides, or Gentically Modified Materials (GMM). The EcoSoya waxes listed above are not technically 100% soy candles because they have botanical oils added to them, which are supposed to enhance the quality of the wax burning.
If you are interested in adding scent or color to your candles, soy is the wax for you. As Isla, owner of Wee Mindings, said, “I really enjoy working with soy because I personally love fragrant not overpowering candles, and soy holds fragrance really well.” Isla mentioned that different soy waxes exist for different applications. If you are adding low flash point essential oils, like lemon, you can’t add them into a 150-degree soy wax because they will just evaporate. Thus, if you are contemplating adding fragrance to your soy candle, you need to consider which the flash point of the essential oils you want to use and what soy wax would correspond. Another benefit of soy is that is a very clean burning vegetable wax. Thus, the inevitable candle making mess will be easier to clean up than if you use beeswax, which is much trickier to clean.
The Portland Homestead Supply gets their beeswax from a large beekeeping business based out of Eastern Washington and Montana. The owners, Joe and Jode Messenger, have been keeping bees commercially since 1994. When I inquired about their beekeeping philosophy, Jode said simply, “To keep our bees alive. It gets harder and harder each year as we progress.” Bees are in trouble across the United States, under attack by mites, pesticides, and an increasing lack of food as monoculture agriculture dominates our horizons. Thus, it is no surprise that beeswax is the most expensive wax available.
Although beeswax is expensive, its virtues are plentiful. As Jode Messenger said, “Beeswax is not hazardous or carcinogenic. It is solvent-free and contains no additives.” Although you cannot dye beeswax brilliant colors like you could a soy or paraffin candle, Jode brought my attention to the joy of the spectrum of natural colors of beeswax candles. She told me that last year’s wax was a darker wax because the bees fed predominately on alfalfa. This year, the bees have been making honey mostly from clover, which produces a lighter wax.
The Messenger’s operation is not organic because they travel with their bees, allowing the bees to pollinate apple trees in Washington and cherry and almond tress in California during different seasons. Joe and Jode cannot monitor what plants each individual bee pollinates and thus cannot guarantee that the honey and beeswax they produce is 100% pesticide free.
Beeswax is lovely because it’s ancient (the oldest candle in human history), is arguably the most environmentally friendly of all waxes, burns longer and brighter than other waxes, and releases sweet smelling honey and floral notes. I have heard that beeswax, when burned, emits negative ions that improve air quality by neutralizing the positive ions of pollutants. When I asked Jode about this, she had no concrete answer about the effect of burning beeswax on air quality or decreasing the effects of allergies. However, she did mention that ingesting local honey, imbued with pollen that is particular to the region, will help decrease allergies. Below is a infographic that simplifies the differences between soy and beeswax to help you choose which you would like to work with!
The Portland Homestead Supply also sells candelilla which is wildcrafted in the United States. Candelilla wax is extracted by boiling the wax-coated stems of Candelilla shrubs, which are native to Northern Mexico and the bordering dry southern states of the USA. Candelilla wax is more expensive than most waxes, but is a great vegan alternative to beeswax. Candelilla wax is mainly used in making cosmetics, like lip balms and soaps, but can also be used to make candles.
If you want more information about the way different waxes act during the process of candle making, I suggest you take Isla Wilson’s candle making class at the Portland Homestead Supply. Or simply start experimenting and take notes on what works and what doesn’t! We still got a few months of drizzly Portland spring to make it through, so here’s to happy candle making.
I sat down to wait for Isla at Grand Central Bakery in Sellwood. She walked in with effervescent exuberance, greeting each Grand Central employee by name and then proceeding to ask with genuine curiosity about each of their mornings. For those of you who frequent the Portland Homestead Supply, you have probably had the chance to interact with the lovely Isla; she works the front desk on Tuesdays and teaches the candle making classes at the store. The pleasant surprise is that she is not only an employee, but also a vendor! Isla is the proud owner of Wee Mindings, a small business that sells heart-felt gifts like candles, lotion bars, lip balms, and soaps. Read below to find out more about Isla, the inspiration for her business, and helpful candle-making tips.
When did you start making candles, and how did you learn?
When I was living overseas, I bought several books on candle making. I would read about it, but also would buy a candle every time I went shopping. As soon as we moved to Sellwood three years ago, I signed up for a candle-making class with Kristl. I was in one of the first candle-making classes taught at the Homestead Supply. I fell in love with it! I got home and decided that I needed to learn all the nitty-gritty about candle-making in order to make it into a business for myself. I started my business in January of 2013.
Tell me the story behind Wee Mindings.
Wee Mindings means little gifts in Scottish. When I was growing up, my granny used to come to boarding school and give us little treats. She would come and say, “Here’s a wee minding for you to cheer you up!” We shared a love for potions and lotions, so she would usually drop off little hand creams at school for me. My granny passed away about eight years ago at the age of 90 after a good, long life. We were really close, and I wanted to honor her in some way through my business. So that’s the Wee Mindings. I also think it’s hard to find affordable but good quality little gifts. My concept is to make really high quality products that are affordable for a big section of the population. When I used to go shopping for nice candles, they were in the $30 range, which is ridiculous for a candle. We all need little gifts on hand that won’t break the bank!
Is making the candles affordable a big challenge for you?
It’s not. I’m lucky that I can obtain most of my ingredients locally. I get many products through the Portland Homestead Supply store. The challenge is not making the candles affordable, but is finding stores where my products fit. A lot of the stores think that good candles need to sell for $25 or more, and I think there is a big market in Portland for people seeking natural and nicely packaged gifts in the $5 to $20 price range.
Where else do you sell, besides online?
I sell at a wonderful fair trade shop on Mississippi called PDXchange. They carry many of my products – candles, lip balms and bath sachets. The Sellwood Dog Supply also carries my candles!
What are common challenges beginners face in making soaps or candles? Do you have any “pro-tips” to share from your work?
One of the cool things about candle-making is that it’s a journey. Maybe one day you’ll do something and it turns out great. The next day you may have a big sinkhole in the top of your candle. People get frustrated that they’ve done everything according to the instructions, and it hasn’t turned out just right. I like to say that the best thing to do is to take notes. Write down what your pour temperature is and see how that effects the overall look of your candles. That way, if there are any issues you can adjust the temperature accordingly. I give out lots of tips in the candle making class on how to create soy and beeswax candles at home, and how to fix any imperfections. My key point to share is that if you want to have consistent results with your candles, you need to be measuring temperatures, and practice makes perfect!
What types of wax do you use for candle making? What are the pros and cons of the waxes that you use?
I use both soy and beeswax. I love beeswax because it’s a natural, renewable resource and it makes the longest burning natural candle you can make. Beeswax candles burn about twice as long as a soy candle the same size. The only con about beeswax is that you have to find a melting pot to dedicate to beeswax, as it doesn’t clean up easily. It can also be trickier to find the correct wick size when working with beeswax.
I really enjoy working with soy because I personally love fragrant not overpowering candles, and soy holds fragrance really well. Soy is a very clean burning vegetable, so it’s easy to clean up, unlike beeswax.
Soy burns twice as long as a paraffin candle the same size. Paraffin candles are what you see in most stores like Target and World Market. Paraffin is the cheapest wax you can buy. It is created from the sludge waste when crude oil is refined into gasoline. It contains a lot of dodgy chemicals, mainly formaldehyde and benzene. When you burn paraffin, it is emitting those chemicals into the air. I chose to work with soy and beeswax because I want to create natural candles that are not toxic, and are safe to burn around the entire family and pets.
Different soy waxes exist for different applications. You would want a low melting soy wax if you were using essential oils with a really low flash point, like lemon or sweet orange essential oil. You couldn’t add those essential oils into a 150 degree soy wax because they would just evaporate.
For people that are just starting out, where would you suggest getting materials or doing classes?
All are available at the Homestead Supply store! We have people come from out of town, the Gorge, Oregon Coast because they find us online and know we have everything to make candles from start to finish. We have the wicks, the tabs, the wax, the molds, the containers.
What is your favorite “wee minding” that you have created over the years?
I set up a booth at the Scottish Highland Games last summer. It was really nice for me to see who bought my products and why. Most people are drawn to my logo and to the Celtic script. What I loved about it most was that they wanted to share with me tales of their Scottish heritage. A lady bought a candle at the Highland Games and went back to North Carolina. It was a ‘Secret Garden’ candle that smells of sweet violet and lime. She emailed me right before Christmas and asked if I could use the candle fragrance in soaps so she could wash in it! She told me that she suffered from depression her whole life and that the fragrance made her happy. That would be one of my favorite customer stories!
How do you see your work fitting into the larger homesteading movement?
Unlike some of the other vendors who are selling items that you buy to help create something, I am actually handcrafting goods for the gift category. I operate in kind of direct competition with people who come in to create their own candles. I hope that for every person that wants to do that, there is another who says, “Oh, here’s a candle ready made up, and I’m going to buy it.” Similarly to other homesteaders, I go by the premise that I like to use ingredients that are beneficial to your health and skin. Sharing my candle making skills with others in the candle class gives me a lot of joy, and helps me be more of a homesteader!
What is your vision for your business five or ten years down the road?
My immediate goal would be to try to expand into a couple more stores that I love in the Portland area. I’ve met with New Seasons and Whole Foods about getting my products into their stores. Unfortunately, right now, I don’t have the manpower to sell there, should I be fortunate enough for them to express an interest, because I create and package everything from start to finish, which is really time-consuming. Unless I expand and hire people, being in a big retailer would not be feasible. It’s not to say that I wouldn’t like that down the road, but I’d need to do a lot of thinking. In the immediate future, selling in small boutique gift shops in the Portland metro area is my goal.
For the people that read this on the Homestead blog, I’d love to say a huge thank you to everyone who has purchased a Wee Minding for themselves or as a gift, or attended a candle class. Thank you for supporting my business and I wish all of you a new year filled with light and joy!
And last but not least, thank you to the Portland Homestead Supply – the first store in Portland to carry Wee Mindings. I’m so grateful for everything you have done for me.
You can browse through Isla’s products at her website – www.weemindings.com.
On a rainy Saturday, I came upon Neil Bohne’s booth at the Portland Saturday Market. Holiday shoppers teemed around his booth, bestowing praise upon Neil’s unique handmade wooden and acrylic razors. Neil has a magic hand for all things wooden and sells not just his distinctive razors at the Portland Homestead Supply, but also soap molds and molded beeswax. After beginning to sell soap molds for the Homestead Supply, Neil took a soap-making class and now only uses handmade soap in his own home! Read the interview below to learn more about Neil, his unique art, and how he sees himself fitting into the homestead movement.
How did you begin making handmade shaving razors?
A few years ago, I was selling cutting boards at the Saturday Market. There were so many other artists selling cutting boards, so I thought I would change it up. I had made my Dad a razor set for Father’s Day, and it was a hit, so I started producing and selling shaving razors for the Saturday Market.
I am active in the Air Force, which is what brought me to Portland. I’ve got seventeen years in and three years left to go. I get home at 5:00 at night, work in the garage until about midnight, and sell on the weekends on the Saturday Market. When I retire in three years, I’ll be doing this full time.
It is a badger hair brush. The reason I use the badger hair brush is because it holds the most amount of water, and it’s all natural. The brush is used to stimulate the whiskers before a shave.
Are there other people who are occupying the same market niche as you currently?
Absolutely not. I am the only person in the Portland area that’s doing these handmade razor sets. There are people doing them in other areas, but I’m trying to differentiate mine by making unique designs, like the deer antlers, natural woods, and acrylics.
Here at the Saturday Market, there’s a lot of jewelry and clothing, but there’s not many gifts for guys, which has turned out to be a niche that’s good for me.
I have a lot of different materials that I craft my razors out of. My favorite and the more popular design is my natural-shed white deer antler razor. The antlers are from Montana. I go out in the woods and find them myself in the spring, so they are naturally procured.
I go to the scrap bins for the wood that I make my razors out of. So instead of throwing wood away or burning it, I turn it into something that’s going to last a lifetime. On some of my razor handles, I mix acrylic and put it in the voids of the wood. Those turn out just beautiful as well.
I make beeswax wood conditioner that I sell at the Portland Homestead Supply. It is all natural beeswax that I filter myself, and then I mix it with mineral oil. It’s 100% food safe for conditioning wooden cutting boards.
In terms of the process, how do you go about making the razors?
Everything starts out as either a piece or a block of wood. I cut the wood to a square size that I need, and then I drill a hole inside that for the razors, and then I turn them out. Once I get them to where I like them, I sand them down to about 1000 grit, and coat them with superglue, which makes them 100% waterproof.
When did you learn to work with wood?
I started out making cutting boards. Nature is amazing with the different types of woods and designs and styles she can make. Woodworking gets my mind off of other things and get’s me into a world of my own. I learned many of my skills watching YouTube videos. A lot of artists share their abilities and ideas on YouTube. I learned through them and through trial and error.
Have you ever taught woodworking classes?
I’ve been asked by WoodCraft to teach people how to do the acrylic work because it’s an art to work with the acrylic and get different colors. You have to get things just right. I mix the colors all myself. I make my own molds for the acrylic, then pour it in, and let it harden.
What is the purpose of a soap mold for those of us who have never made soap?
Soap molds hold soap into a form when you are making homemade soap. People use wooden soap molds because they hold heat well. If you are doing a cold process soap, you need to be able to keep heat in for twenty four hours so that the saponification can occur. If you do a hot process, the wood also holds the heat, but acts principally as a form to mold the soap.
How do you feel like your work contributes to the larger homestead movement?
The shaving razors are bringing people back to more of the pioneer days of using double edge safety razors and badger hair brushes. The soap molds are imperative because they allow people to make their own soap for use at home. The beeswax conditioner allows them to keep wood products they own from cracking or drying out.
What’s your next step for your business?
Right now, I am the sole proprietor. My shaving sets have become so popular that I’ve had a lot of local businesses ask me to do wholesale. As soon I retire from the air force, I am thinking of getting some local employees, producing more, and going wholesale with my items.
Danny Perich, owner of Full Plate Farm, farms and harvests food for 85 winter CSA shares on a small piece of land in Ridgefield, Washington. The land belongs to his wife’s parents and his wife, Michelle was born and raised there. I am one of the lucky participants of the vegetables that Danny nurtures and watches over all winter long. The first share that I got last week had a golden beet the size of my face and sweet carrots that made me realize that the grocery store carrots I have been consuming for years are as flavorful as cardboard.
Wendell Berry’s famous line “Eating is an agricultural act,” reminds us that our food choices have larger effects than simply filling our stomachs, but rather are political acts that reinforce different food structures and systems. Danny has labored over his piece of land in Washington to be able to bring nutritious, unique varieties of vegetables to his shares and to support his family (including his very new twins!). Portland Homestead Supply is one of the drop-off sites for Full Plate Farms’ amazing winter CSA. Check out the interview below to learn more about Full Plate Farms and to benefit from Danny’s suggestions for cooking winter vegetables common to the NW.
When did you first get involved in farming, and where did you acquire the skills you have now? I went through the organization WWOOF (World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms) to New Zealand and hopped around volunteering at different small farms. When I came back, I starting working on a small family farm in Wisconsin that raised sheep and goats and made cheese. They had four kids, forty goats, two dogs, seven cats, a pony, and a couple sheep, and a bunch of vegetables. I was twenty-one that summer and fell in love with farming then, the hard work, the animals, the family, the life. After that, I looked for opportunities around Portland to come back home. It’s been a good journey so far.
Tell me the story of Full Plate Farm. How did it come to be? Michelle, my wife, was born and raised here. Michelle’s parents had always said, “You’re welcome to use our land if you ever want to.” I would always look at it and say that doesn’t seem like great soil out there. It’s not like, “Oh yeah, let’s farm out here in Ridgefield.” A lot of it is clay with a low PH, which you have to cover crop intensively to bring the PH up. It takes a lot of time, money and patience to bring the soil up to what it should be to grow vegetables off of. A few years ago, we were living in Portland, but Michelle wanted to live out in the country eventually, and I wanted to farm and have my own place. So we took up her parents offer, moved to Ridgefield, and started to farm on their land. The first season the cover crop barely grew. I soil test every year and try to dial the soil in closer and closer in order to achieve the optimal growth for the vegetables.
Was the difficult soil part of why you chose to specialize in winter vegetables? It was. I thought I could do a summer CSA at first, but it was too hard to get anything started in the spring because the soil has a higher water table here, which doesn’t allow you to get established that early. If we were ever going to do a summer CSA, we would have to start in July rather than June, so it just wasn’t worth the struggle or the headache.
Also, we were extremely busy in the summer because we were remodeling our house and I was managing Meriwether’s Skyline Farm. I wanted to start something slow and low key at home. So we started a winter CSA with a little over a dozen folks the first year. Every year, we kept doubling our output, growing for 24 folks the second year, 50 the third year, 85 the fourth. This year, our fifth year, we have around 85 folks again. We are getting close to using the land as much as I want to.
I hadn’t heard of a winter CSA before hearing of Full Plate Farm, how unique do you think that is, either in Portland or nationwide?
There’s a good handful of folks that have been doing it year round or having seasonal CSAs. Pumpkin Ridge Farms out in Beaverton has a year round CSA. 47th Ave Farm located in SE Portland has a winter CSA. Growing in the winter can be risky in a lot of ways, even if you do know what you’re doing. The weather can still go crazy. Last winter was a pretty hard winter. We had plenty of carrots in the end, but had a gap in our kale harvest, which is rare for us. It’s not like the summer when you can say this crop totally failed, let’s hurry up and plant another round. Everything in the winter is slow growing, barely growing, so you can’t make up for losses as easily.
Right. In that vein, to harvest in the winter, when do you need to plant? Leeks, winter squash, and potatoes get planted in May or sometimes even June. That starts our planting schedule. Most everything else is seeded in July, all the chickarees, carrots, brassicas, kale, and collards.
Wow. So they are growing for months and months. Yeah, the vegetables grow normally up to this point in early November. From now until mid February, they grow minisculely. Once mid February comes, everything starts to grow again and it’s exponential from there. The green starts to re-grow on the vegetables the last month and a half the season. The vegetables ride the slow waves of winter.
Are you certified organic? What sort of farming practices do you engage in? We basically follow the organic practices, but we aren’t certified because it’s just one more fee to pay. We just sell to CSAs. If restaurants or selling wholesale ever becomes our main market, if we expand and rent land somewhere, then we’d get certified at that point. There’s no reason to get certified when we are only selling direct to families.
What is your favorite winter vegetable, and how do you like to prepare it? Well, I love carrots. Winter carrots are amazing because all of the starches turn to sugar because of the freezes. Once we get our first frost, all the greens, the parsnips, and the carrots sweeten up. You just don’t get that if you buy California carrots; they don’t get freezes; they don’t get that sweetness. If you buy local produce in the winter here, the flavors are truly incredible. Carrots are my favorite because they’re so versatile. You can roast them, mash them, snack on them, and they’re a big hit with kids. Also, I love making parsnip fries. Just cut them up into fry like shapes, drizzle olive oil and salt, and put them in the oven for a half hour or forty-five minutes at 400 degrees. I’d rather have those than French fries any day. Sugarloaf chicories are amazing too. They are a bitter green that looks like a small baguette. Incredible in a mixed salad, but you can also cut it in half, drizzle olive oil, put it in the oven for fifteen minutes at high heat. That is a nice way to prepare it because you get sweetness and crispiness.
In your work as a farmer all over the country, how have you seen the CSA movement evolve? I’ve seen it become a common name where most people have either heard of a CSA or heard of the idea. CSA is such a funny term, people kind of get the idea, but it’s easier to explain as something like a beer of the month club, but you get vegetables instead! I think the CSA market is expanding alongside the growth of the whole organic movement, which has exploded in the last five to ten years. I’ve seen the CSA market expand and diversify. There are now bread CSAs, fruit CSAs and different models of vegetable CSAs. Josh, over at Our Table Cooperative, offers shares for each season of the year and individual shares for one person. The CSA market has become really specific and farmers are tapping into different niches by offering something unique.
What is your next step for your business? What is your vision for yourself ten years down the road? Five years from now, I imagine we will have rented some land nearby and expanded our operations, offering more winter CSA shares and selling to wholesale markets too. We would also like to partner more with schools around here. Every spring, students from the Portland Waldorf School spend a week up here, camping out, learning what it means to have a life on the farm. It would be awesome to be able to offer more educational opportunities. My own daughter, Ramona, will probably be driving the tractor, she’ll be eight in five years.
My oh my, what a busy season it has been. We all knew it was coming but who really remembers in early Spring as we rush to find the earliest of strawberries for making jam? No, this is our lot in life and, for me, there is no turning back.
Living and eating by the seasons and from your pantry is not only what we do but what we are and I dare say the farmers are glad for it. At least I would assume so given their smiles at the last Fill Your Pantry Event I attended.
The event held on November 3rd in Corvallis, Oregon and sponsored by the Ten River’s Food Web was promoted as “a one-day farmers’ market offering bulk quantities of beans, grains, storage crops, and preserves. We believe this event is a great way to facilitate local eating throughout the fall and winter months. It also allows our local food farmers, ranchers, orchardists, beekeepers, and cheesemakers to move large quantities of produce before the winter season while demonstrating the ability to raise edible staples across the Willamette Valley.”
For the past four years I have made the pilgrimage to what is arguably one of my favorite events of the year. Of course I’m a bit strange but the mind and heart can burst with the energy of the local food movement. That I get to be a part of it gives me pride, farmwife pride, a cook-in-the-winter-kitchen pride.
The winter kitchen is a lovely place to be. Besides all those delicious long-simmering soups, stews, casseroles and my-oh-my pies, it is the reason for the season of our madness. It is where we put all the good work filling our pantry to the good work of feeding our friends and family. This is the logic of the system – from seed to pantry and back around. This is the logic of the farmwife but somewhere along the line folks got too busy to cook so industry took over. Slowly folks are returning to the task but not without others spitting bullets about the notion that good old fashioned home cooking is anything other than tyranny.
There are a lot of valid reasons why folks feel over burdened in this world. Hell’s bells if there aren’t and I would be the first to say our modern world has turned the home place into little more than a way station between obligations. Cooking? Home cooking? Are you kidding me? I get it but I will say that a nation of home cooks can do more to change the culture of farming or economics in America then almost anything else I can think of.
My rationale for that statement is longer than I can post here but home cooking is a powerful tool particularly when done in support of the local farming movement. It gives them an outlet for what may otherwise not suit markets and chefs because we home cooks know that a blemish here and there does not matter. Moreover, we are invested with the skills and desire to avoid packaging and understand how the main becomes the many.
Wheat berries, for example, bought whole and either cooked as a side dish or cracked for porridge or ground for flour or bulgur or, or, or, allows for a myriad of transformations and a whole wheat berry, properly stored, will last well into the next season. Ground into flour, on the other hand, the germ of the wheat berry is exposed to air and can become rancid over time which is why flour should be stored in the refrigerator. This principle applies to so many other ingredients that, with a little bit of knowledge, a fully stocked winter pantry can become an invitation for endless innovation without taking up room in the fridge.
This is the way your grandparents or great grandparents or someone’s grandparents used to live and it is inspiring to see how many folks are catching on. Heck, when I first started on this journey I had to access information on winter storage from the archives of my local extension office. Now they are displayed proudly and what a lovely thing that is.
So while home cooking is not everyone’s path it is a yummy way to support your local farmer. Perhaps next year we will be able to have such and event in Portland. Certainly we have enough talent and heart to pull it off. For now, however, I will keep my 2015 calendar marked for this event since it is one of the highlights of my year. Oh, and if you want to get in on the action this year there is still time. The Willamette Farm and Food Coalition is hosting a Fill Your Pantry event on November 16th between 1-5. To get more information follow this link. Until then, happy winter cooking.